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  • 04/01/2018 1:20 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Joel Sebern, Lallier Construction, Inc.

    A roof system is the most vulnerable part of a building's exterior. Extreme Colorado temperature changes, along with wind, rain, hail, and snow all affect a roof system's performance. 

    Performance of a roof is based on good design, quality materials, proper installation, and a preventive maintenance program. Roof maintenance is critical to preventing roof problems and keeping the roof in watertight condition. Early identification and repair of roof problems will help provide a long lasting roof system.  

    If your roof has been impacted by hail or wind, below are a few tips to help you through the process of restoring your roof system.

    • Prepare to file an insurance claim by gathering copies of your policy and call your insurance company as soon as possible after the event to request an assessment. The insurance company must determine if there is sufficient damage to the roof system to declare it a total loss or if repairs can be made
    • You should call a professional roofing contractor and ask for an inspection and repair or replacement estimate. If there are any discrepancies between the insurance adjuster’s findings and the roofing contractor’s findings, you may request a re-inspection from your carrier. During a re-inspection, the insurance adjustor meets with the roofing contractor to review your roof damage together. Re-inspections are common. 
    • Assessing hail damage is accomplished by a roofing inspection, which usually occurs several days to several months after the hail event. Determination of whether hail fell at a site may be made through statements and weather reports. Inspection of thin, aluminum fixtures helps verify hail impact. 
    • Hail damage to asphalt shingles includes granule loss, material removal at the edges of shingles and penetration. New asphalt shingles are more resistant to hail impact than older shingles because asphalt becomes more brittle with age. In cases of severe wood splitting, significant granule loss, shingle penetration and fracture, shingle replacement may be required.  
    When storms damage your roof, dealing with the aftermath can be stressful. When it is necessary to hire a roofing contractor, be cautious about opting for the lowest bid. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Price is only one factor in selecting a professional roofing contractor; professionalism and quality workmanship also must be considered. Take time to evaluate potential contractors before any roofing work begins.  A reliable and professional roofing contractor should meet the following criteria: 

    • A permanent place of business 

    • Experience with many styles of roof systems 

    • Proof of insurance / license

    • Quality company safety program 

    • Evidence of industry professionalism such as proof of training and manufacturer certifications 

    • Financial stability 

    • Submit a written, detailed proposal

    • Valid warranties on labor and materials

    • References in Colorado (Proceed with caution if the contractor only provides out-of-state references) 

    • Maintenance programs

    **Please be aware of contractors who will only accept cash payments and “up-front payments” before materials are delivered to the site.

    Lallier Construction, Inc. has been roofing in Colorado’s climate since 1989. We offer free consultations, inspections, and estimates at times that best fit your busy schedule.  Lallier Construction provides its services in both the Residential and Commercial Sectors. Services we provide are New Construction, Re-Roof, Warranty Claims and Insurance Claims.

  • 04/01/2018 1:18 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Timothy M. Moeller, Esq. and Bujar Ahmeti, Esq., Moeller Graf, P.C.

    As the snow begins to melt and people trade their ski poles for sunblock, community associations across Colorado will begin to turn their attention to opening their swimming pools.  While everyone loves to have fun in the sun, maintaining and operating a swimming pool may present legal challenges for community managers and boards of directors.  While some issues are unique, there are some questions that arise fairly regularly. Below you will find what a typical conversation may look like.   

    A local swim league approached the association and asked if it could use the pool to host its swim meets.  Are there any legal issues of which we should be aware?

    Typically, community association pools are private, and as such, are not subject to Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”). Allowing a local swim league (and its supporters) to use the association’s swimming pool may transform the swimming pool from a “recreational facility” to a place of “public accommodation.”  As a result, the association would have to ensure the swimming pool was compliant with Title III of the ADA.  This was confirmed by the Department of Justice in a published Q&A regarding ADA accessibility where the DOJ stated that if a swimming pool/club located in a residential community is made available to the public for rental or use, then it is covered under Title III of the ADA.  A pool categorized as a “public accommodation” would have to meet the ADA Standard for Accessible Design, which provides:  

    • If the pool is less than 300 lineal feet, then it must have at least one accessible means of entry, which must either be a chair lift or sloped entry.
    • If the pool is more than 300 lineal fee, then it must also have a second means of access, which can either be another lift or ramp, or it can also be a transfer wall, a transfer system, or pool stairs.
    • Clear deck space must be designated for easy access to the pool and easy transfer from a wheelchair or mobility device.

    We have concerns about keeping the pool sanitary for all of our residents if we allow children in diapers to use the pool.  Can we implement a rule that prohibits any person under the age of 4 from using the pool?

    Even rules with the best intentions can find disfavor with the law.  The Fair Housing Amendments Act (“FHAA”) prohibits discrimination in housing on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, familial status and disability.  Familial status is defined, in pertinent part, as “one or more individuals (who have not attained the age of 18 years) being domiciled with a parent or another person having legal custody of such individual or individuals.” Some ask, “How can we be discriminating against families with children if we will allow children who are at least 5 years of age to use the pool?”  When reviewing a rule or regulation for a potential fair housing discrimination claim, a reviewing court will look to whether there is a less restrictive measure to accomplish the association’s objective.  Here, instead of enacting a rule adopting a complete ban on children under a certain age for sanitary reasons, an association is better served to promulgate a rule requiring an incontinent person or child who is not fully toilet trained to wear appropriate swim diapers or other appropriate waterproof sealing undergarments when entering the pool.   

    A homeowner who is disabled attended the board meeting last week and requested the pool be modified by installing a chair lift so that the homeowner can use the swimming pool.  Does the board have to allow installation of the chair lift, and if so, who pays for it?

    Under the FHAA, a community association may not discriminate against anyone with a disability by treating said person less favorably than those that are not disabled.  The association must permit disabled persons to make reasonable modifications to existing dwellings or common areas that are necessary to afford the disabled person full enjoyment of the dwelling.  A “reasonable modification” is a structural change made to existing premises, occupied or to be occupied by a person with a disability, in order to afford such person full enjoyment of the premises.  However, an association can place reasonable conditions on the modifications.  These conditions include requiring the disabled person to: (1) provide a reasonable description of the modifications; (2) provide reasonable assurances that the work will be done in a workmanlike manner; (3) make the modifications in accordance with the association’s reasonable aesthetic requirements that do not increase the cost of the modifications; and (4) obtain any required building permits.  Generally, the requestor is responsible for the cost of the reasonable modification.    

    As is the case with operating any common area within a community association, a community swimming pool requires more than just proper chlorine levels to properly function.  Of course, a community association can mitigate any potential risks by ensuring compliance with its governing documents and any federal or state laws.

    Timothy M. Moeller is a founding partner of Moeller Graf, P.C. and has practiced community association law exclusively since 1999.  

    Bujar Ahmeti is an associate attorney at Moeller Graf, P.C. whose practice is dedicated solely to addressing the needs of Colorado community associations. 

  • 04/01/2018 1:03 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Casey Colvin, Heritage Roofing and Contracting, LLC

    When the Colorado winter begins weakly whimpering its way toward us at a leisurely pace, there is no better time to consider those pesky preventative maintenance items we’ve put off to enjoy our prolonged fall Season. When looking at our community through the lens of maintaining a space shuttle it’s easy to over-inspect, over-repair and over-worry. When encountering this mindset, try to remember a little acronym we call “ARG!” 

    Assess Damage

    Typically, the easiest way to prevent future problems is to review the current ones; walking through a community looking for debris fallen from roofs, rust around existing roof penetrations, stains from downspouts on concrete, and any landscaping that may be washing out or concrete that has heaved. These tell-tale signs are often the beginning of a larger problem and a great place to start the hunt for pre-emptive repair. Once you’ve compiled your list you can work from the top down. 

    Roof Maintenance

    Inspect those roofs! Now I don’t mean walk around and enjoy the view, rather hire a licensed roofing contractor to inspect and document any real issues that may be present in the future. Areas to pay particular attention to are communities with flat roofs and tile roofs. While shingles can often be maintained with minor sealant touch up, a new pipe boot, or a replacement shingle, tile roofs and flat roofing membranes come with maintenance items all their own. Especially on units where mechanical equipment has been serviced; ask your contractor to inspect for tile breakage or excessive wear on flat membranes as high traffic areas will present leaks first. Also, ask your contractor to document any flat roofing membrane that is shrinking from the walls and any areas where water may be pooling in excess. If these items are not corrected quickly, costly repairs are sure to follow.

    Gutter Cleaning

    Get those gutters cleaned, because there is nothing worse than an overflowing gutter creating a skating rink in your community. Short of encouraging the Avalanche to enjoy your new practice rink, there is a large liability in slips, trips, and falls. Pay special attention during the cleaning as areas with larger build-up of debris are likely great candidates for a gutter guard system. By installing the gutter guard, you can eliminate a substantial amount of year after year gutter maintenance costs and keep that water where it belongs. 

    Don’t forget the downspouts. These lateral drains are responsible for the lions-share of gutter overflows and are too often overlooked. Pay special attention to any downspout that drains into an underground pipe. If not properly cleaned and maintained they are prone to clogging, breakage, or blockage from vegetation growth. Be sure the contractor performing this repair takes the time to find the drain outlet, otherwise prepare for the flood! 

  • 04/01/2018 1:01 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Justin Bayer, Caretaker Landscape and Tree Management

    Spring is officially upon us, and that means it is time to get your landscape ready for the growing season and cleaned up from the fall and winter.  April is arguably the most important time of the year for landscape in Colorado, and that is because there are many steps that need to be taken in order to set your community up for success.  


    • When to start up the irrigation system is often a point of contention between landscape contractors, community managers, and HOA boards.  The temperamental weather in Colorado can make knowing when to fire up the system a bit confusing; March can be dry for weeks, leading residents to want to get the system up and watering, when out of nowhere a large storm can come through and freeze all of the lines, potentially causing damage to the system.  
    • In order to avoid wasting water and money, we suggest aiming to turn on your irrigation system between April 15th and May 1st.  Even though the weather has been warmer than usual this winter, March and April have the tendency to be wetter months, which means you can save on your water bill by holding out for a bit longer before starting up your system.  
    • As you gear up your irrigation system and start to fine tune it for spring and summer, make sure to inspect your system thoroughly.  You will want to make sure all of your pop-up spray heads and rotors are working optimally (covering the right area and not clogged) and that your drip emitters are working properly on your trees and shrubs.  Emitters and spray heads have a tendency to get clogged up during the winter, and if left unresolved, can lead to major problems down the road.  Along with doing a thorough check during the start-up process, your landscape contractor should be checking your irrigation system on a consistent basis during the course of the season to catch any potential problems early.  The sooner you notice an irregularity, the quicker you can get it resolved through your landscape maintenance team.


    • If you are looking for the healthiest turf possible, you should plan to utilize aeration early in the growing season.  Aeration stimulates root growth by helping the turf soak in more water, air, and fertilizer.  Make sure to know where your sprinkler heads and rotors are if you decide to aerate, as this will help you avoid any potential damage to your system.
    • Fertilization is a common practice to get your turf off to a full-bodied, healthy start, and to keep it that way by applying more fertilizer during the summer.  It is especially effective when combined with aeration.  Fertilizer can be done once per year, three times per year (recommended), or even up to five times or more per year if your community is aiming for that “golf course” look. 
    • Make sure to rake and remove all winter debris from your lawn to get your lawn off to a great start.  During the summer, after the turf has gotten healthy and full, it can be beneficial to mow over any plant debris on your lawn and allow it to be mulched into the turf.

    Weed Control

    • After a dormant fall and winter for your landscape, you’ll want to start it off right by removing all weeds located in your lawn, planting beds, and around your shrubs and ornamental grasses.  Not only do weeds take resources from your plants, they take away from the relaxing aesthetic of a well maintained landscape.
    • March and April (depending on the weather) is the best time to utilize pre-emergent weed control methods on your landscape.  Both turf and bed areas should be treated with an herbicide that is applied to the surface.  Water (rain, snow, irrigation, hand watering, etc.) will push the pre-emergent down into the areas where weed seeds lay dormant until they begin germination.  The pre-emergent ensures that the seeds are killed before they are able to grow and sprout out from the turf or the bed areas.   

    Getting the proper start to your landscape maintenance is absolutely vital, and by following the tips and advice above you can ensure that your community will look healthy, green, and gorgeous all spring and summer!  

    Caretaker Landscape and Tree Management is a privately owned and operated company with locations in both Colorado and Arizona.  Caretaker has been in business for over 30 years, and have built their reputation on customer service, exemplary communication, and through utilization of cutting-edge technology.   

  • 04/01/2018 12:59 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Andrew Loyola, Denver Elevator Company

    An overwhelming number of owners and managers I speak with are either dissatisfied with the performance of their elevators or frustrated with the lack of communication from their maintenance provider. “I never see my mechanic but I sure see the invoice”.  “The inspector just came and all my tests are past due”

    Here are some basic steps to follow to improve your elevator experience:

    1. Maintenance Agreement: Understand what’s not covered, request hourly billing rates and make sure normal business hours are clarified in the contract. For example, you may consider normal hours to be 8:00am-5:00pm, however, their hours are 6:00am -2:00pm. This will reduce costly overtime invoices and repairs for work not included.

    1. Scheduled Visits and Safety Tests: Make sure the frequency of visits, (weekly, monthly, quarterly) are clearly written in the contract and identify when the code required annual and 5 years safety tests were last performed.  For example, avoid vague language like “Regular Scheduled Visits” and hold your provider accountable to timely safety testing.  This will avoid unnecessary inspection violations. 

    1. Maintenance Control Program (MCP): Code mandates that each elevator has a MCP log kept in the elevator machine room and all maintenance, repairs and testing be documented once performed. Check your machine rooms to ensure cleanliness and the logs are on site and up to date. 

    1. Contract Terms: Negotiate reasonable cancellation terms and avoid automatic long-term contract rollovers. Most elevator contracts require 1-3 months written notice of cancellation prior to the anniversary date or they automatically roll over.  It’s fair to give a company written notice of non-performance and give them a chance to correct the problem if a mistake is made or if there experiencing an intermittent technical problem.  It’s not reasonable that you can’t cancel your contract even though your maintenance provider hasn’t shown up in many months, safety tests are past due and you have no MCP documentation onsite?

    To prolong the life of your equipment, ensure your mechanic communicates well, checks in and out and keeps you informed, doesn’t miss maintenance visits, keeps car tops, pits and machine rooms clean and painted, timely performs annual safety tests and documents performance in the onsite MCP log.

    If your building is over 25 years old and the elevator equipment is original, it’s a good idea to start planning and budgeting for an elevator modernization.  How soon is an unknown? It really depends on the usage, type of equipment and how well it’s been maintained. The good news is, authorities having jurisdiction in your area will only mandate elevators be brought up to current code if you make a major alteration to the equipment, change in speed, capacity, controls just to name a few. 

    Also, the State of Colorado Conveyance Division and the Denver Fire Department are implementing a couple of code changes everyone needs to be aware of. 

    1. Effective January 2019, the code mandated annual elevator inspection (performed a 3rd party inspector) needs to be within 60 days of the annual safety test (performed by the mechanic).  Your current service provider should assist with coordination at no additional cost.

    1. Effective July 1, 2018 the City and County of Denver is mandating all the fire service key switches be standardized to a FEO-K1 type. We recommend Owners and Managers with units that fall under this jurisdiction request pricing and perform this work as soon as possible, to avoid inspection violations and or fines.

    Andrew Loyola has over 30 years’ experience in the elevator industry and is President and Owner of Denver Elevator Company.

  • 04/01/2018 12:56 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Peter O’Brien, President Solutia Adjusters

    In general, property claims should be filed when there is a benefit to the insured for filing a claim and should be avoided when there is little or no benefit to be gained. It is beneficial to the community to complete the steps below before filing a property damage claim, whether for a small water leak or a major hail event, since the repercussions of incorrectly filed claims can be significant for the long term financial solvency of the community: 

    Verify that there is actual damage and confirm the extent of anticipated damage: Too often claims are called in for the wrong thing and/or for damage that is much less severe than anticipated. 

    Confirm the date that the loss took place: Calling in a claim for the wrong date of loss can cause problems, including filing a claim with the wrong insurance company. 

    Verify there is coverage for the loss or damage: Exclusions and coverage limitations exist in every insurance policy that could limit or exclude certain types or aspects of loss. 

    Form a reasonable expectation of outcome: Before filing a claim it is best to have at least a reasonable expectation of the size of the loss and what benefit the community can expect after application of the deductible and any applicable policy limitations or exclusions. 

    Meet the policy deadlines and timelines: There are requirements in most policies that claims be filed as soon as it is reasonably known that a claim is necessary. Once damage is known, it is important to move quickly through the decision-making process and file the claim on time. 

    If you are unsure about a particular situation or have questions about claim best practices for Community Associations, please let us know. 

    Peter O’Brien a founding partner of Solutia Adjusters. He managed large and complex claims for over nine years and provides proactive training and claims resolution solutions for communities and commercial property owners.

  • 02/01/2018 1:43 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Ryan Gager, Hearn & Fleener, LLC

    The new year is upon us and it remains to be seen if 2018 will bring more changes to construction defect litigation. After years of both sides battling, 2017 saw two major decisions in the construction defect industry. First, was the introduction of House Bill 1279, a step towards construction defect litigation reform. Whether it was a step in the right direction or a step backwards probably depends on who you ask. The bill was touted as a bipartisan effort toward addressing the housing squeeze in Colorado. Construction defect has long been a hot topic in Colorado as developers and builders cite how easy it is for homeowner associations to sue, along with the high cost of insurance as the reasons there are very few condominiums being developed throughout the state. Homeowner associations and those representing them argue that it is their only recourse when a building isn’t built correctly.

    HB 1279 requires that a unit owners’ association obtain approval through a vote of unit owners before filing a construction defect claim. The bill requires an association to notify all unit owners and the developer or builder of a potential construction defect action, call a meeting where both the HOA and developer or builder have an opportunity to present arguments and potentially remedy the defect, and obtain a majority vote of approval from the unit owners to pursue a lawsuit before bringing that lawsuit against a developer or builder.

    If you are a homeowner in a community that always wanted to be more involved or know what was going on, this bill ensures that. All owners will be notified of a potential claim, and all will have a voice in a community-wide vote. Majority approval of the owner vote does not include nonresponsive owners and the court will determine whether diligent efforts were made to contact the owner, whether mail was undeliverable, whether the owner is occupying the unit, and if other contact information such as email or a phone number were used. All of this means that unit owners should keep all records and contact information up-to-date with their HOA, to ensure they can be part of the vote.

    The other significant development in construction defect litigation last year, was the Colorado Supreme Court’s decision in Vallagio at Inverness Residential Condo. Ass’n, Inc. v. Metro. Homes, Inc. The issue was whether a condominium developer can place a provision in the project’s governing documents, a provision that requires that any dispute with the developer be summitted to binding arbitration and prohibits the condo unit owners from amending the document to remove that provision. The state Supreme Court ruled that the homeowner association was wrong to sue the builder after disregarding bylaws, including the provision, that require binding arbitration to settle claims of construction defects.

    The building industry favors binding arbitration as a more streamlined way of dealing with allegations of defects. However, HOAs and those representing them argue that this decision gives too much power to developers and builders. It remains to be seen if developers and builders will now use this decision to place provisions in governing documents of all developments.

    Whether these decisions are considered victories for developers and builders or not, developers and builders still need to continue to implement successful strategies to mitigate risks of construction defect litigation. These include third-party inspections, insurance programs, familiarity with state code and standard requirements, disclosures to homebuyers and turnover procedures to associations.

    The one thing we do know is, based on the decisions and outcomes of 2017, we are a long way from a definitive solution to construction defect in Colorado.

    Ryan Gager is the Director of Marketing at Hearn & Fleener, LLC, a construction defect firm serving all of Colorado.

  • 02/01/2018 1:41 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Matthew Pearson, Wes Wollenweber, Lisa Greenberg, Gravely Pearson Wollenweber Freedman, LLC

    As many managers and certain board members know, condo and townhome associations are often involved in difficult disputes with their insurance carriers over significant property damage resulting from catastrophic weather events. These disputes unfortunately can result in lengthy court battles, many of which are in federal court. Catastrophic weather is truly on the rise in Colorado. Consequently, these disputes are not going away. The disputes are often incredibly similar: a condo community suffers damage from a major storm, such as hail and/or high winds, and contractors or public adjustors provide estimates of the damage to property owners in response to the low estimates prepared by the insurance companies or their representatives. To combat this problem, managers should know that Colorado has a relatively new but powerful statute that punishes insurers for unreasonably denying and/or delaying payment on valid claims (Insurance Bad Faith). Because this statute exposes an insurer who violates it to significant financial exposure, insurance companies are fighting these lawsuits vigorously.

    Certain trends are resulting from these legal battles. Among these emerging trends are insurance companies’ reliance on two policy provisions. These provisions are in nearly every commercial policy that covers a multifamily community, and insurance companies are claiming in litigation that homeowner associations are violating these provisions. The first provision requires policyholders to “promptly” notify their insurance company in the event of a loss. The second provision, commonly referred to as a fraud clause, arguably prohibits misrepresentations during the claims process.

    Under the prompt notice provision, insurance companies try to defeat a breach of contract claim (based on denial or underpayment of a claim) by arguing that the policyholder failed to promptly notify them of the loss and therefore somehow caused the insurer some type of harm. Insurance companies are making the argument that multifamily community policyholders are obligated to take steps to inspect for weather damage as part of ordinary maintenance and that the failure to do so violates this provision. While it is not known yet how our courts will ultimately view this argument, it is important to be aware of this litigation trend. 

    While most, if not all, insurance policies do not require routine inspection for weather related damage, periodic photographs or video inspections, especially if used to compare to previous photo and video inspections, can help identify exactly when the damage occurred, preventing any prompt notice arguments. The lack of routine inspections can sometimes result in a community discovering weather related property damage months after the actual weather event occurred because the damage is not obvious and did not cause any leaks. Insurance companies are arguing that the lack of such routine inspections is somehow a breach by policyholders even though the insurance policies require no such routine inspection. It remains to be seen how federal and state judges will view this argument.

    Under the fraud provision, insurance companies are working hard to establish what they call “reverse bad faith” by arguing that associations and their vendors are misrepresenting key facts or intentionally inflating estimates during the claims process. Insurance companies are developing these arguments to potentially recover insurance proceeds they have already paid under the pertinent policy. One of the reoccurring legal theories insurance companies have put forth involve allegations that the association’s roofing contractor has padded its estimate and, thus, padded the association’s claim. 

    In addition, as many community managers and board members know, because of the nature of these claim disputes, more and more communities are turning to Public Adjustors to serve as their advocates in the claims process. Certain insurance companies are fighting hard to paint a picture that Public Adjustors are conspiring with roofing contractors, and even the association’s community managers to inflate the value of the insurance claim. The insurance companies even cite to community management contracts that allow managers to earn a fee for assisting with the association’s claim as evidence of fraud or at least an incentive to inflate damage estimates.

    Based on these trends, Associations, as policyholders, should be diligent to periodically document the condition of their community by photos or video. In the event of a loss, notify the insurance company as soon as possible and make sure that one person is designated to communicate with the insurance company or their adjuster. If the community needs to hire a contractor or public adjuster to assist them with the claim, make sure they are qualified and have experience evaluating and repairing damage. Insurance claims are often frustrating and time consuming. However, the Colorado law is in place to help policyholders obtain what they bargain for in paying premiums: fixing their property damage.

  • 02/01/2018 1:37 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Ashley M. Nichols, Cornerstone Law Firm, P.C.

    Believe it or not, the electric car has a long and storied history dating back to the 19th century when inventors across the globe started tinkering with building cars which would run on electric power.  In 1891, William Morrison of Des Moines, Iowa built the first successful electric automobile in the United States.  

    However, with the introduction of Henry Ford’s gasoline powered Model T in 1908 and the invention of the first practical electrical automobile starter in 1912 (which made gasoline powered vehicles more alluring because it eliminated the hand crank starter), the vision of the electric car began its demise.  However, throughout the late 20th century and certainly in the 21st, we have seen advances in the electric vehicle, leading to greater horsepower, the ability to drive longer distances, and lower costs allowing more access to the market. 

    The growing interest in these vehicles should not come as a surprise if you’ve driven on the roads in Colorado.  In September of 2017, the Denver Post reported that there were more than 10,000 EVs on Colorado roads compared to less than 100 in 2011.  Colorado boasts the sixth highest EV market share in the nation and the fourth-fastest growing EV market, according to the report. 

    Colorado passed legislation in 2013 regarding community associations and electric vehicle charging stations, declaring that the “widespread use of plug-in electric vehicles can dramatically improve energy efficiency and air quality for all Coloradans, and should be encouraged wherever possible.” 

    So, why are we talking about this in 2018?  While Colorado was one of the early adopters of legislation promoting the use of electric vehicles, associations should not consider it “old hat.”   It’s certainly a trend affecting condos and HOAs across the nation in 2018.  We are in a time where more and more individuals own or are looking to purchase electric vehicles.  Because of this, associations, which may not have had to deal with this issue regularly since 2013, may have to entertain more requests for accommodation for owners’ electric vehicles.  So, what exactly is the law in Colorado and how can you make sure that your association is compliant?

    In Colorado, community associations are required to permit owners to install Level 1 and Level 2 electric vehicle charging stations on their lots and on limited common elements designated for an individual owner’s use.  

    Level 1 Charging:

    • When one charges the electric vehicle (EV) using the charger included with the car.  These chargers can be plugged with one end into any standard 120V outlet, with the other end plugging directly into the car.
    • Can take upwards of eight hours to fully charge the vehicle.
    Level 2 Charging:
    • These chargers are sold separately from the car (although often purchased at the same time). Those chargers need a bit more of a setup, as they are plugged into a 240V outlet, which often requires the work of an electrician.
    • Takes around four hours to fully charge the vehicle, but is costs more than a Level 1 charger.


    The law does not require that associations incur expenses related to the installation or use of the stations.  Because of the growing number of consumers purchasing electric vehicles (in large part to state and federal tax credits), community associations should consider adopting a policy regarding electric vehicle charging stations.  Provisions which can be included in the policy are:

    • Bona fide safety requirements, consistent with an applicable building code or recognized safety standard; 
    • Require that the charging station be registered with the association within thirty days after installation; 
    • Reasonable aesthetic provisions that govern the dimensions, placement, or external appearance of an electric vehicle charging system; 
    • In certain circumstances, require that the owner engage the services of a licensed and registered electrical contractor familiar with the installation and code requirements for electric vehicle charging stations; 
    • Require that the owner bear the expense of installation, including costs to restore any common elements disturbed in the process of installing the system; and 
    • Require that the owner provide proof of insurance naming the association as an additional insured on the homeowner’s insurance policy for any claim related to the installation, maintenance, or use of the system, or payment of the association’s increased insurance premium costs related to the charging station.

    The bill also created the electric vehicle grant fund, which is used to provide grants to install recharging stations.  Therefore, communities that want to participate in the progressiveness of today’s electric vehicle are encouraged to apply for grants to assist with funding electric vehicle charging stations on common elements as an added amenity for owners. 

    The primary purpose of the law in Colorado was to “ensure that common interest communities provide their residents with at least a meaningful opportunity to take advantage of the availability of plug-in electric vehicles rather than create artificial restrictions on the adoption of this promising technology.”  And that is also certainly one of CAI’s initiatives.  According to CAI,
    by 2040, community associations will represent over 50% of the housing stock in the United States.  By the same year, it is anticipated that electric vehicles will represent 35% of new car sales.  To help promote these principles in your community or for questions about the potential impact of electric vehicles in your association or for your members, contact your legal counsel.

    Ashley Nichols is the principal and founder of Cornerstone Law Firm, P.C.  She has been in the community association industry for ten years, providing associations with debt recovery solutions for their communities.  Cornerstone Law Firm represents Colorado communities in all areas of common interest community law. You may find out more at www.yourcornerstoneteam.com.  

  • 02/01/2018 1:35 PM | CAI Rocky Mountain Chapter (Administrator)

    By Lindsay Smith, Winzenburg, Leff, Purvis & Payne LLP

    This article is written by an attorney, but is not intended to be legal advice. It is general in nature.  This article is intended to provide you with a broad understanding of the declaration amendment process and highlight some common problematic provisions so you can better discuss with community members, but it is not an in depth analysis.  Every situation differs, and you should consult with your association’s attorney before undertaking a declaration amendment.  

    The declaration creates the community.  C.R.S. § 38-33.3-103(13).  It is common for attorneys and developers to work closely together to ensure that the declaration that is created properly reflects the community that is created, but this doesn’t happen in every instance.  Sometimes, a declarant “saves money” by copying from another community’s declaration.  Other times, miscommunications between attorney and client result in a declaration that reflects what the attorney understood to be the declarant’s intent, which actually has nothing to do with the declarant’s intent.

    The difficulty in creating a declaration that properly governs a particular community can be exacerbated by the passage of time.  Communities created before the adoption of the Colorado Common Interest Ownership Act (“CCIOA”) are not required to have the same declaration provisions as communities formed on or after July 1, 1992.  These older declarations may have definitions that aren’t aligned with CCIOA, missing assessment and maintenance provisions, or provisions that are now contrary to public policy.  While many of these provisions are superseded by CCIOA, their presence in your declaration can make governance and management an expensive headache.  When your declaration does not allow the association to properly govern or function without constant legal opinions, you need an amendment.

    Common Problematic Provisions

    We see a lot of common problems in declarations.  Some provisions that may need to be amended out, either by a limited amendment or by an amended and restated declaration, follow.

    • Errors in allocated interests.  When a declarant annexes in properties by phase or at the time of conveyance, they often record a supplemental declaration that revises allocated interests to reflect the addition.  Sometimes these documents are recorded without appropriate legal oversight, and the allocated interests are not properly reallocated.  Other times, a phased development results in allocated interests that do not total 100% (or one) as required by CCIOA.  When this happens, the only option is a declaration amendment.
    • Incomplete definitions.  You will see declarations that treat certain words as defined terms, but never actually define the term.  
    • Unreasonable restraints on Board power.  Some Declarations prohibit all assessment increases, restrict Boards from adopting reasonable rules, and hamstring normal operations.  
    • Assessment ambiguities.  Some declarations and bylaws will both speak to assessments and collections, but their provisions (e.g., late fees, interest, due dates) will conflict.
    • Other assessment problems.  Assessment limits tied to the CPI and assessment caps can prevent an association from performing necessary maintenance.  
    • Obsolete or inappropriate provisions.  Some declarations contain provisions that are contrary to public policy, such as prohibitions on solar panels.  Very old declarations may even include provisions that directly violate the Federal Fair Housing Amendments Act.  These provisions are unenforceable, confusing, and can create strife in a community.
    • Ambiguous or missing maintenance provisions.  CCIOA specifies default maintenance if the declaration is silent on the issue, but this default doesn’t apply to pre-CCIOA communities.  Similarly, missing or ambiguous insurance provisions create coverage gaps.
    • Ambiguous unit boundaries.  When you can’t figure out whether the drywall is part of the condominium unit or part of the common elements, you will likely turn to legal counsel for an opinion.  While CCIOA defines unit boundaries in the event the declaration has failed to, that section also does not apply pre-CCIOA communities.  If your unit boundaries are ambiguous, you will have problems determining insurance and maintenance obligations.  
    • Insurance provisions.  Some declarations limit all insurance deductibles to $5,000.  These provisions are economically impossible when insurance companies charge wind and hail deductibles based on a percentage of the building’s value.  
    • Special assessments.  Documents that are silent on the power and process to levy special assessments hurt communities that have suffered unfunded losses, such as catastrophic hail damage.
    • Certified mailings.  Some declarations mandate certified or registered mailings for all but “non-routine” notices.  The declarations do not define a routine notice, leaving associations to wonder whether the reminder letters that go out to a third of the community are routine or non-routine.  Certified mailings are expensive, and do not benefit from any presumption that the letter reached its intended recipient.
    • Declarant provisions.  If your community is complete and the declarant is gone, the declarant provisions are obsolete.  While the presence of these provisions may not harm the community, they tend to make the declaration more confusing for the average homeowner.  Amend these provisions out, but make sure you have obtained any declarant consent you may require.
    • Construction defect provisions.  With the passage of HB 16-1279, many existing provisions intended to address construction defect lawsuits are presumably obsolete.  However much you may want to amend the declaration to remove such provisions, be aware that you may have to obtain declarant consent – even if the community is built out, special declarant rights have expired, and the declarant has been dead for thirty years.
    • Leasing restrictions.  Leasing restrictions are restrictions on the “alienation” of real property and need to be in the declaration.  If you want to limit short term rentals, set minimum lease terms, restrict the total number of units rented, or take other substantive actions that impact leasing, you need a declaration amendment.

    The Amendment Process

    CCIOA governs declaration amendments in section 38-33.3-217.  “Section 217” provides the process by which an amendment can be made, exceptions to that process, lender approval guidelines, and the judicial approval process.  Your legal counsel should review your existing declaration to ensure that any unusual amendment provisions are appropriately addressed.

    Section 217(1) creates the maximum threshold for most document amendments.  Declarations – especially for older communities – frequently require approval by members representing 75% or more of the community.  These provisions effectively precluded amendment in many communities, so the legislature took action in 2005 to amend the law.  Now under Section 217(1), any amendment percentage greater than 67% is declared void as contrary to public policy.  The amendment percentage can be as low as a simple majority of all votes in the association, but it cannot be higher – except when it is.

    Sections 217(4) and 217(4.5) allow for higher percentage thresholds for amendments that create or increase special declarant rights, increase the number of units, change the boundaries of any unit, change the allocated interests of any unit, or change the uses to which any unit is restricted.  Section 217(4) applies to pre-CCIOA communities; section 217(4.5), governing use restrictions, does not (don’t worry, it gets more complicated soon).  These types of amendments require a minimum of 67% of the votes in the association, but are governed by any higher percentage specified in the declaration.  Thus, a community could be forced to obtain unanimous consent for a change in how common expenses are allocated, if the original document required unanimous consent for such an amendment.  The community would have to obtain unanimous consent to decrease this amendment threshold for future amendments as well.

    If the association does not reach whatever percentage threshold is required by CCIOA and/or the declaration itself, all hope is not lost.  Section 217(7) sets forth a process by which an association can obtain judicial approval of an amendment where the failure to reach the voting threshold is due to non-response (as opposed to substantial opposition).  To ensure your community can proceed with judicial approval, make sure that you discuss the amendment at a meeting of the association, send out at least two notices of the amendment, and obtain at least half of the votes you would need to approve the amendment outright.  Consult with your association’s attorney to make sure the meeting notice is appropriate for the proposed amendment, as document amendments have been a favorite topic of the Colorado appellate courts in recent years.

    If you are proceeding with judicial approval, section 217(1) does not apply to the amendment.  Appellate courts have not clarified whether this inapplicability is simply recognition that the court is approving an amendment rather than the homeowners, or whether this inapplicability means that the 67% threshold established by that section is ignored when calculating whether you obtained at least half of the votes you would need to approve the amendment outright.  The cautious approach is to proceed under section 217(7) with whatever higher percentage is contained in the Declaration.

    In addition, courts are not entitled to approve amendments that change the allocated interests, except to the extent that they change the portion of the allocated interests that is the common expense liability.  You cannot obtain judicial approval of an amendment that changes the ownership interests in the common elements in a condominium, or the votes in the association in any community.


    Declaration amendments, contrary to a statement made to me by an owner at a document amendment meeting, are not easy.  You need to engage with legal counsel early to determine the appropriateness and viability of an amendment and create a roadmap to get from where you are to where you need to be.  Do not try a declaration amendment on your own, but don’t be afraid of the hard work associated with an amendment.  They may take years in some circumstances, but the benefit to the community is long term.

    Lindsay Smith is a community association attorney with Winzenburg, Leff, Purvis & Payne LLP.  Her practice focuses on general community association matters such as document amendments, governance, and document interpretation.

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